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Kurt Lewin
Force Field Analysis, Group Dynamics, and Unfreezing, Moving, and Refreezing.
(source: Kenneth Benne, Human Relations in Curriculum Change)

"The negative valence of a forbidden object which in itself attracts the child thus usually derives from an induced field of force of an adult." (Kurt Lewin; A Dynamic Theory of Personality)

"If this field of force loses its psychological existence for the child (e.g., if the adult goes away or loses his authority) the negative valence also disappears." (Kurt Lewin; A Dynamic Theory of Personality)

"Change in organization can be derived from the overlapping between play and barrier behavior. To be governed by two strong goals is equivalent to the existence of two conflicting controlling heads within the organism. This should lead to a decrease in degree of hierarchical organization. Also, a certain disorganization should result from the fact that the cognitive-motor system loses to some degree its character of a good medium because of these conflicting heads.  It ceases to be in a state of near equilibrium; the forces under the control of one head have to counteract the forces of the other before they are effective." (Kurt Lewin in Child Behavior and Development Chapter XXVI Frustration and Regression)

"It is usually easier to change individuals formed into a group than to change any one of them separately."  (Kurt Lewin in Kenneth Bennie, Human Relations in Curriculum Change)

"The individual accepts the new system of values and beliefs by accepting belongingness to the group." (Kurt Lewin in Kenneth Benne, Human Relations in Curriculum Change)

"A change in action-ideology, a real acceptance of a changed set of facts and values, a change in the perceived social world—all three are but different expressions of the same process,"  (Kurt Lewin in Kenneth Benne, Human Relations in Curriculum Change)

"Social action no less than physical action is steered by perception."  (Kurt Lewin in Kenneth Benne, Human Relations in Curriculum Change)

"... the new system of values and beliefs dominates the individual's perception."  (Kurt Lewin in Kenneth Benne, Human Relations in Curriculum Change)

"... the group to which an individual belongs is the ground for his perceptions, his feelings, and his actions"  (Kurt Lewin,  Resolving social conflicts: Selected papers on group dynamics)

"Kurt Lewin emphasized that the child takes on the characteristic behavior of the group in which he is placed. . . . he reflects the behavior patterns which are set by the adult leader of the group." "It changes his cognitive structure, the way he sees the physical and social worlds, including all his facts, concepts, beliefs, and expectations." "It modifies his valences and values, ... his attractions and aversions to groups and group standards, his feelings in regard to status differences, and his reactions to sources of approval or disapproval."   (Wilbur Brookover, A Sociology of Education)

"Feelings of not belonging can be forestalled by making everyone feel welcome and wanted from the very beginning."  "It is probable that the individual who does not belong will act in ways not conducive to good group action."  "The best approach is to help him feel that he does belong and that he is wanted, whether or not his ideas are similar to those of the group." "Give him a ‘\'we' feeling if possible, and avoid any 'you vs. us' attitude by word or gesture." "For re-education seems to be increased whenever a strong we-feeling is created."  (Kurt Lewin in Kenneth Benne, Human Relations in Curriculum Change)

"Physical experiences cause a change in our theories and concepts about the physical world."  (Principles of Re-education Kurt Lewin and Paul Grabbe "Conduct, Knowledge, and Acceptance of New Values" The Journal of Social Issues)  If you preach and teach (and then chasten those who are disobedient) to initiate and sustain order you engender a "top-down," Patriarchal Paradigm (righteousness) order of absolutes ('fixity').  But if you dialogue opinions to a consensus (insisting upon "tolerance of ambiguity") to initiate and sustain  order, you engender an "equality," Heresiarchal Paradigm (sensuousness) order of 'change,' of permissiveness, of abomination.

"The objective sought will not be reached so long as the new set of values is not experienced by the individual as something freely chosen." (Principles of Re-education Kurt Lewin and Paul Grabbe "Conduct, Knowledge, and Acceptance of New Values" The Journal of Social Issues)

"An outright enforcement of the new set of values and beliefs is simply the introduction of a new god who has to fight with the old god, now regarded as a devil."  (Principles of Re-education Kurt Lewin and Paul Grabbe "Conduct, Knowledge, and Acceptance of New Values" The Journal of Social Issues)

"... the new set of values he is expected to accept does not assume in him the position of super-ego, and his re-education therefore remains unrealized."  (Kurt Lewin in Kenneth Bennie Human Relations in Curriculum Change)

"Re-education must be clever enough in manipulating the subjects to have them think that they are running the show."  (Principles of Re-education Kurt Lewin and Paul Grabbe "Conduct, Knowledge, and Acceptance of New Values" The Journal of Social Issues)

"The re-educative process has to fulfill a task which is essentially equivalent to a change in culture." (Kurt Lewin in Kenneth Bennie Human Relations in Curriculum Change)

"A feeling of complete freedom and a heightened group identification are frequently more important at a particular stage of re-education than learning not to break specific rules."  (Principles of Re-education Kurt Lewin and Paul Grabbe "Conduct, Knowledge, and Acceptance of New Values" The Journal of Social Issues)

"A successful change includes, therefore, three aspects: unfreezing the present level, moving to the new level, and freezing group life on the new level."  (Kurt Lewin in Kenneth Bennie Human Relations in Curriculum Change)  See the article on Brainwashing.

"... general principles for changing group culture" [are]" change of group atmosphere, (the system of values which governs the ideology of a group), changes of power constellation within the group (change in methods of leadership is probably the quickest way to bring about a change in the cultural atmosphere of a group.)"  (Kurt Lewin in Kenneth Bennie Human Relations in Curriculum Change)

"Driving forces are those forces or factors affecting a situation which are 'pushing' in a particular direction; they tend to initiate a change and keep it going."  (Kurt Lewin in Kenneth Bennie Human Relations in Curriculum Change)

"Restraining forces may be likened to walls or barriers.  They only prevent or retard movement toward them.... the first step may be to determine what forces, if any, must be dealt with before a change can occur."  (Kurt Lewin in Kenneth Bennie Human Relations in Curriculum Change)

A "hierarchy of leaders has to be trained which reach out into all essential sub-parts of the group."  "Hitler himself has obviously followed very carefully such a procedure."  "The democratic procedure will have to be as thorough and as solidly based on group organization."  (Kurt Lewin in Kenneth Bennie Human Relations in Curriculum Change)

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