The So Called Shift in Education.
The use of "Bloom's Taxonomies" in the classroom.
(Modernized by Marzano and then Webb, Common Core is based upon Webb's rendition).
Bloom's Taxonomy: A Forty Year Retrospect
"Certainly the Taxonomy was unproven at the time it was developed and may well be ‘unprovable,'"
"adopted Ralph W. Tyler's idea of an educational objective as a change in behavior; ways of acting, thinking, and feeling, ... covert as well as overt states and responses."
"Kuhn admitted problems with the schemata of his socio-psychological theory yet continued to urge its application into the scientific fields of astronomy, physics, chemistry and biology." (Thomas Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions)
Benjamin Bloom, et al., Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Book 1, Cognitive Domain - dedicated to Ralph W. Tyler
"… a psychological classification system."
"It has been pointed out that we are attempting to classify phenomena which could not be observed or manipulated in the same concrete form as the phenomena of such fields as the physical and biological sciences."
"We are not attempting to classify the particular subject matter or content."
"We recognize the point of view that truth and knowledge are only relative and that there are no hard and fast truths which exist for all time and all places"
"Only those educational programs which can be specified in terms of intended student behaviors can be classified."
"What we are classifying is the intended behavior of students—the ways in which individuals are to act, think, or feel as the result of participating in some unit of instruction."
"Educational procedures are intended to develop the more desirable rather than the more customary types of behavior."
David Krathwohl, Benjamin S. Bloom, Taxonomy of Educational Objectives Book 2: Affective Domain
"Whether or not the classification scheme presented in Handbook I: Cognitive Domain is a true taxonomy is still far from clear."
"What we call 'good teaching' is the teacher's ability to attain affective objectives through challenging the student's fixed beliefs and getting them to discuss issues."
"The affective domain is, in retrospect, a virtual 'Pandora's Box.'"
"There are many stories of the conflict and tension that these new practices are producing between parents and children."
"To create effectively a new set of attitudes and values, the individual must undergo great reorganization of his personal beliefs and attitudes and he must be involved in an environment which in many ways is separated from the previous environment in which he was developed."
"...many of these changes are produced by association with peers who have less authoritarian points of view, as well as through the impact of a great many courses of study in which the authoritarian pattern is in some ways brought into question while more rational and nonauthoritarian behaviors are emphasized."
Weltanschauung1" - "1Cf. Erich Fromm, T. W. Adorno"
Erick Fromm wrote: "Personal relations between men have this character of alienation. Hegel and Marx have laid the foundations for the understanding of the problem of alienation." "We are proud that in his conduct of life man has become free from external authorities, which tell him what to do and what not to do." "Both the sadistic and the masochistic trends are caused by the inability of the isolated individual to stand alone and his need for a symbiotic relationship [some external authority over him] to overcome this aloneness." [Fromm believed that man could] "not take the last logical step, to give up 'God' and to establish a concept of man as a being who is alone in the world, but who can feel at home in it if he achieves union with his fellow man and with nature." "All that matters is that the opportunity for genuine activity be restored to the individual; that the purposes of society and of his own become identical." (Erick Fromm, Escape from Freedom) "In the process of history man gives birth to himself. He becomes what he potentially is, and he attains what the serpent―the symbol of wisdom and rebellion—promised, and what the patriarchal, jealous God of Adam did not wish: that man would become like God himself." (Erick Fromm, You shall be as gods: A radical interpretation of the old testament and its tradition)
"In Escape from Freedom, Fromm offered the sado-masochistic character as the core of the authoritarian personality." "The antithesis of the 'authoritarian' type was called 'revolutionary.'" "By The Authoritarian Personality 'revolutionary' had changed to the 'democratic.'" (Martin Jay, The Dialectical Imagination)
Theodor Adorno wrote: God is conceived more directly after a parental image and thus as a source of support and as a guiding and sometimes punishing authority." "Family relationships are characterized by fearful subservience to the demands of the parents and by an early suppression of impulses not acceptable to them." "An attitude of complete submissiveness toward 'supernatural forces' and a readiness to accept the essential incomprehensibility of ‘many important things' strongly suggest the persistence in the individual of infantile attitudes toward the parents, that is to say, of authoritarian submission in a very pure form." "Authoritarian submission was conceived of as a very general attitude that would be evoked in relation to a variety of authority figures—parents, older people, leaders, supernatural power, and so forth." "The power-relationship between the parents, the domination of the subject's family by the father or by the mother, and their relative dominance in specific areas of life also seemed of importance for our problem" "The individual may have 'secret' thoughts which he will under no circumstances reveal to anyone else if he can help it. To gain access is particularly important, for precisely here may lie the individual's potential for democratic or antidemocratic thought and action in crucial situations." (Theodor Adorno, The Authoritarian Personality)
"I have found whenever I ran across authoritarian students that the best thing for me to do was to break their backs immediately." "The correct thing to do with authoritarians is to take them realistically for the bastards they are and then behave toward them as if they were bastards." (Abraham Maslow, Maslow on Management)
"In a democratic society a patriarchal culture should make us depressed instead of glad; it [A patriarchal culture, where children obey their parents, citizens and elected officials obey the law of the land, man obeys God] is an argument against the higher possibilities of human nature, of self actualization." "In our democratic society, any enterprise—any individual—has its obligations to the whole." "Tax credits would be given to the company that helps to improve the whole society, and helps to improve the democracy by helping to create democratic individuals." (Abraham Maslow, Maslow on Management)
"Self-actualizing people have to a large extent transcended the values of their culture. They are not so much merely Americans as they are world citizens, members of the human species first and foremost." (Abraham Maslow, The Farther Reaches of Human Nature)
". . . I've decided to get into the World Federalists, become pro-UN, & the like." "Only a world government with world-shared values could be trusted or permitted to take such powers. If only for such a reason a world government is necessary. It too would have to evolve. I suppose it would be weak or lousy or even corrupt at first—it certainly doesn't amount to much now & won't until sovereignty is given up little by little by 'nations.'" "The whole discussion becomes species-wide, One World, at least so far as the guiding goal is concerned. To get to that goal is politics & is in time and space & will take a long time & cost much blood." ". . . A caretaker government could immediately start training for democracy & self-government & give it little by little, as deserved." "This is a realistic combination of the Marxian version & the Humanistic. (Better add to definition of "humanistic" that it also means one species, One World.)." "To identify with more and more of the world, moving toward the ultimate of mysticism, a fusion with the world, or peak experience, cosmic consciousness, etc." (Abraham Maslow, The Journals of Abraham Maslow)
By adding the "affective domain," i.e., the child's "feelings" of the 'moment'—stimulated by and responding to the current situation, i.e., classroom environment—to the child's classroom experience, the child's "feelings" (and therefore his "thoughts," i.e., opinion) of the 'moment' determined the value or worth of the father's/Father's commands, rules, facts, and truth, negating the father's/Father's authority in the child's feelings, thoughts, and actions, as well as in his relationship with others (questioning, challenging, disregarding, defying, attacking the father/Father and his/His authority). Bloom admitted the "affective domain" was like "Pandora's box," a box full of evils, which once opened could not be closed, causing conflict and tension in the home.
"The child takes on the characteristic behavior of the group in which he is placed. . . . he reflects the behavior patterns which are set by the adult leader of the group." (Kurt Lewin in Wilbur Brookover, A Sociology of Education) "It is usually easier to change individuals formed into a group than to change any one of them separately." "The individual accepts the new system of values and beliefs by accepting belongingness to the group." (Kurt Lewin in Kenneth Benne, Human Relations in Curriculum Change)
"The guilty conscience is formed in childhood by the incorporation of the parents and the wish to be father of oneself." "The individual is emancipated in the social group." "Freud commented that only through the solidarity of all the participants could the sense of guilt be assuaged." (Norman O. Brown, Life Against Death: The Psychoanalytical Meaning of History)
"Part of the dialectics of the process of winning independence from parental authority lies in using the extrafamilial peer group as a foil to parental authority, particularly in the period of adolescence." (Bradford, Gibb, Benne, T-Group Theory and Laboratory Method: Innovation in Re-education)
In the dialogic relation of recognizing oneself in the other, they experience the common ground of their existence." (Jürgen Habermas, Knowledge & Human Interest, Chapter Three: The Idea of the Theory of Knowledge as Social Theory)
"To experience Freud is to partake a second time of the forbidden fruit;" (Norman O. Brown, Life Against Death: The Psychoanalytical Meaning of History)
"If the guilt accumulated in the civilized domination of man by man can ever be redeemed by freedom, then the 'original sin' must be committed again: 'We must again eat from the tree of knowledge in order to fall back into the state of innocence.'" (Herbart Marcuse, Eros and Civilization: A philosophical inquiry into Freud)
By simply changing the method (environment or curriculum) you use in educating your students in the classroom (whether in the public, private, or home school) you can change the way they think and act. If you, as an educator, use didactic, i.e., deductive, i.e., traditional education methods (or curriculum) in your classroom, i.e., use the father's authority system where you 1. preach commands and rules to be obeyed and teach facts and truth to be accepted as is, by faith, 2. bless or reward those students who obey and do or get things right, 3. chasten or discipline those students who disobey or do or get things wrong—discussing with your students, when necessary, why their answers were right or wrong—and 4. cast out (expel) those students who question your commands and rules and challenge your facts and truth, i.e., who question and challenge your authority to teach them right from wrong, your objective in education is to produce independent minded (facts based) students, who can stand alone, if need be, with the truth, maintaining their "private convictions" (regarding right and wrong) in the midst of adversity. But if you, as a facilitator of 'change,' use dialogic and dialectic, i.e., inductive, i.e., transformational education methods (curriculum) in your classroom, i.e., use the dialoguing of your student's opinions to a consensus, via. the "group grade," focusing upon their"feelings" of the 'moment' to arrive at an answer (proper response) to personal-social issues, your object in education is to produce socialist minded ("feelings" based) students who are easily seduced, deceived, and manipulated by the current situation and the person or persons (facilitators of 'change') who are manipulating it. "A change in the curriculum [method of teaching] is a change in the people concerned—in teachers, in students, in parents ....." "[We] must develop persons who see non-influencability of private convictions in joint deliberations as a vice rather than a virtue." (Kenneth D. Benne, Human Relations in Curriculum Change)
Rather than bringing the father back to play with his son, this strategy would recognize that society has changed, and attempt to improve those institutions designed to educate the adolescent toward adulthood." "Equality of Opportunity becomes ever greater with the weakening of family power. " "One of the consequence of the increasing social liberation of adolescents is the increasing inability of parents to enforce norms, a greater and greater tendency for the adolescent community to disregard adult dictates, and to consider itself no longer subject to the demands of parents and teachers." (James Coleman, The Adolescent Society)
By "shifting" education (or any learning environment) from being facts based (do right - do not do wrong based) to being feelings based (stimulus-response based), group dynamics (psychoanalysis and psychotherapy) comes into play in the students life inside and outside the classroom, with the focus of educational objectives becoming the students behavior in regards to where his loyalty lies in any given moment or situation, either unwaveringly remaining loyal to parental authority (controlling, disciplining, humbling, and denying himself in order to do what is right and not wrong) or wavering along a spectrum from being somewhat loyal to parental authority (somewhat 'liberated' from parental authority, yet feeling guilty for doing wrong), to loyalty to group relations ("self" 'liberated,' yet feeling guilty for letting the group down), to loyalty to the process of 'change' (actively 'liberating' other children from parental authority—and the world from Godly restrain—with no sense of guilt for doing wrong). As Benjamin Bloom wrote: "It was the view of the group that educational objectives stated in the behavior form have their counterparts in the behavior of individuals, observable and describable therefore classifiable." "Only those educational programs which can be specified in terms of intended student behaviors can be classified." "What we are classifying is the intended behavior of students—the ways in which individuals are to act, think, or feel as the result of participating in some unit of instruction." "Educational procedures are intended to develop the more desirable [according to the child's "self interest" of the 'moment'] rather than the more customary [subject to the parent's authority, doing right and not wrong] types of behavior." (Benjamin Bloom, et al., Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Book 1, Cognitive Domain) Bloom was concerned that traditional minded teachers might pick up on his agenda of changing the classroom learning environment from the teachers using their traditional teaching methods, i.e., teachers teaching facts and truth to their students in order to produce traditional (right-wrong) minded students, to where teachers using transformable teaching methods, instead encourage their students to learn through their "feeling" of the 'moment' (in the "light" of the current situation or classroom environment) in order to produce socialist (feelings) minded students. He therefore suggested that his taxonomy books not be read until after the teachers had first learned, i.e., had first been processed through their participation in "in service training," how to apply them in their classrooms (as well as amongst their peers).
By putting students under the pressure of group dynamics (in an environment requiring 'compromise' in order to receive group approval) their loyalties can be detected and 'changed' (as in a laboratory) from loyalty to parental authority to 'loyalty' to "group relations," to 'loyalty' to initiating and sustain the 'change' process in others (the ultimate objective). As Carl Rogers wrote, regarding the 'changing' of the student's 'loyalty' from parental authority, through self-interest, to "human relationship," i.e., 'liberating' the children from 'loyalty' to parental authority (their right-wrong authority system itself) through the use of dialogue ('liberating' dialectic 'reasoning') in the classroom: "By a careful design, we control not the final behavior, but the inclination to behavior—the motives, the desires, the wishes. The curious thing is that in that case the question of freedom never arises." "If we have the power or authority to establish the necessary conditions, the predicted behaviors will follow." "'Now that we know how positive reinforcement works, and why negative doesn't' … 'we can be more deliberate and hence more successful in our cultural design.' "We can achieve a sort of control under which the controlled, though they are following a code much more scrupulously than was ever the case under the old system, nevertheless feel free. They are doing what they want to do, not what they are forced to do. That's the source of the tremendous power of positive reinforcement—there's no restraint and no revolt." "In psychology, Freud and his followers have presented convincing arguments that the id, man's basic and unconscious nature, is primarily made up of instincts which would, if permitted expression, result in incest, murder, and other crimes." "The whole problem of therapy, as seen by this group, is how to hold these untamed forces in check in a wholesome and constructive manner, rather than in the costly fashion of the neurotic." "We can choose to use our growing knowledge to enslave people in ways never dreamed of before, depersonalizing them, controlling them by means so carefully selected that they will perhaps never be aware of their loss of personhood." (Carl Rogers, on becoming a person: A Therapist View of Psychotherapy)
"Freud noted that patricide and incest are part of man's deepest nature." (Irvin Yalom, The Theory and Practice of Group Psychotherapy) "... the hatred against patriarchal suppression—a 'barrier to incest,' ... the desire (for the sons) to return to the mother—culminates in the rebellion of the exiled sons, the collective killing and devouring of the father, and the establishment of the brother clan, which in turn deifies the assassinated father and introduces those taboos and restraints which, ..., generated social morality," (Herbart Marcuse, Eros and Civilization: A philosophical inquiry into Freud)
"In order to effect rapid change, . . . [one] must mount a vigorous attack on the family lest the traditions of present generations be preserved. It is necessary, in other words, artificially to create an experiential chasm between parents and children—to insulate the children in order that they can more easily be indoctrinated with new ideas." "If one wishes to mold children in order to achieve some future goal, one must begin to view them as superior. One must teach them not to respect their tradition-bound elders, who are tied to the past and know only what is irrelevant." ". . . any intervention between parent and child tend to produce familial democracy regardless of its intent." "The consequences of family democratization take a long time to make themselves felt—but it would be difficult to reverse the process once begun. … once the parent can in any way imagine his own orientation to be a possible liability to the child in the world approaching the authoritarian family is moribund, regardless of whatever countermeasures may be taken." "The state, by its very interference in the life of its citizens, must necessarily undermine a parental authority which it attempts to restore." "Any non-family-based collectivity that intervenes between parent and child and attempts to regulate and modify the parent-child relationship will have a democratizing impact on that relationship." "For however much the state or community may wish to inculcate obedience and submission in the child, its intervention betrays a lack of confidence in the only objects from whom a small child can learn authoritarian submission, an overweening interest in the future development of the child—in other words, a child ["feelings" of the 'moment'] centered orientation." (Warren Bennis, The Temporary Society)
As Bloom admitted: "To create effectively a new set of attitudes and values [where feelings direct the individuals thoughts and actions, not established commands, rules, facts and truth], the individual must undergo great reorganization of his personal beliefs and attitudes and he must be involved in an environment which in many ways is separated from the previous environment in which he was developed." "...many of these changes are produced by association with peers who have less authoritarian points of view, as well as through the impact of a great many courses of study in which the authoritarian pattern is in some ways brought into question while more rational and nonauthoritarian behaviors are emphasized." (David Krathwohl, Benjamin Bloom et al., Taxonomy of Educational Objectives Book 2: Affective Domain) The "group grade" procedure used in the classroom is the same procedure used in "group therapy."
The psychotherapist, Irvine Yalom wrote: "What better way to help the patient [the student, your child] recapture the past than to allow him to reexperience and reenact ancient feelings [resentment] toward parents in his current relationship to the therapist [to the facilitator of 'change']? The therapist is the living personification of all parental images. Group therapists [facilitators of 'change'] refuse to fill the traditional authority role: they do not lead in the ordinary manner, they do not provide answers and solutions, they urge the group to explore and to employ its own resources. The group [must] feel free to confront the therapist, who must not only permit, but encourage, such confrontation. He [the student, your child] reenacts early family scripts in the group and, if therapy [if his classroom experience] is successful, is able to experiment with new behavior, to break free from the locked family role he once occupied. … the patient [the student, your child] changes the past by reconstituting it." (Irvin Yalom, Theory and Practice and Group Psychotherapy) As Rogers admitted: "We know how to change the opinions of an individual in a selected direction, without his ever becoming aware of the stimuli which changed his opinion." "We know how to influence the ... behavior of individuals by setting up conditions which provide satisfaction for needs of which they are unconscious, but which we have been able to determine." (Carl Rogers, on becoming a person: A Therapist View of Psychotherapy)
As Karl Marx lamented about education in his day: "Education as yet is unable and unwilling to bring all estates and distinctions into its circle. Only Christianity and morality are able to found universal kingdoms on earth" (Karl Marx, The Holy Family), he found the answer: "Concerning the changing of circumstances by men, the educator must himself be [re-]educated." (Karl Marx, Thesis on Feuerbach # 3) "Re-education aims to change the system of values and beliefs of an individual or a group." "Curriculum change means that the group involved must shift its approval from the old to some new set of reciprocal behavior patterns." (Kenneth Benne, Human Relations in Curriculum Change)
Knowing that the child takes on the characteristic behavior of those in a position of authority, the objective of those desiring 'change' is to attain and retain that position of authority without engendering within the students the traditional way of feeling, thinking, and acting, and relating with others, i.e., no longer using the physical pain of chastening (corporal punishment) to accomplish their desired objective—which is socialism/nationalism, i.e., Fascism—but rather to use the pain of the rejection , i.e., of group disapproval (mental punishment) to accomplish their desired outcome instead—which is socialism/globalism—transforming the individuals of the group from being loyal to one above them, i.e., defending their parent's standards, holding others accountable to them, i.e., refusing to participate in dialogue, i.e., restraining their carnal nature, i.e., refusing to participate in the process of 'change,' to loyalty to themselves, to the world, and to the process of 'change' itself, i.e., willingly participating in dialogue, drawing others into dialogue with them to 'discover' "truth" about themselves, i.e., their love of the world and their resentment toward authority. If the one in the position of authority (the teacher) carries out the traditional father's authority system (method or curriculum) in the classroom, 1) preaching rules and commands to be obeyed and teaching facts and truth to be accepted as is (by faith), 2) blessing those students who obey or do things right, 3) chastening those who disobey or do things wrong, and 4) casting out (expelling) those who question and challenge authority, they will develop a generation of citizens who will willingly submit themselves to, support, and promote the traditional way of thinking and acting, honoring parental authority, engendering nationalism, which (incorrectly preached and taught by those of dialectic 'reasoning') is correlated to engendering Fascism (which destroys parental, i.e. the father's/Father's authority system, which all socialism does, whether local, national, or global, secular or religious). But if the one in the position of authority (the facilitator of 'change') uses the office of "educator" to encourage the students to dialogue their opinions of the 'moment,' challenging and questioning their parent's authority system, they will engender a generation of citizens who will willingly submit themselves to, support, and promote the transformational way of think and acting, i.e. questioning and challenging the idea of parental authority (replacing nationalism with globalism, transcending borders and jurisdictions), promoting 'change.'
If "alignment" of "theory and practice" (if opinion, i.e., flesh and the world), not belief and action or spirit and flesh, which are a dichotomy, i.e., which are at odds or in conflict with one another, being of different substance), i.e., if classroom experience and student behavior (if stimulus and response, i.e., esteeming of self, and not learning facts and truth, recalling them on demand, which requires self-control and self discipline, i.e., the humbling and denying of self) is the objective of education, then, based upon Bloom's world view, i.e., upon his "Weltanschauung," Marxism must be the outcome for student practice (behavior) since on page 166 of his Affective Domain Book 2, Bloom lists two Marxist's (Theodor Adorno and Erick Fromm) as the basis of his theory (opinion), i.e., as the foundation for his curriculum, which is required learning and applying in the classroom for teacher certification as well school accreditation. Marxism is the theory and practice for Common Core, where the child's or the adult's opinion and social actions (self interests and building relationship with others) become one-and-the same, transcending parental, national, and Godly restraint. It should be noted that our Constitution, unlike any other constitution in the world, was the result of men who recognized the father's authority in the home, 'limiting' the power of government in order to prevent it (in the national, states, counties or parishes, townships, cities, towns, and villages) from usurping his right of authority, not infringe upon his right of private convictions, family, property, and business, which is now nearly gone.
Such has been the 'shift' in education from the late 50's and 60's on, when Bloom's Taxonomies became the curriculum used to 'change' the learning environment in the classroom and the school, using group dynamics to 'change' not only the students, but the school, the teachers, the staff, the "community," the home, and the nation and world as well. What should be noted about Bloom's Taxonomies is what Bloom wrote about it some forty years after its publication. "Certainly the Taxonomy was unproven at the time it was developed and may well be ‘unprovable,'" that it "adopted Ralph W. Tyler's idea of an educational objective as a change in behavior; ways of acting, thinking, and feeling, [which included] covert as well as overt states and responses." (Bloom's Taxonomy: A Forty Year Retrospect) Realizing that Bloom's theory is Marx's theory: "The only practically possible emancipation [from parental, national, and Godly restraint] is the unique theory which holds that man is the supreme being for man," that the classroom experience for the child must start with the child's opinion, i.e., with his feelings and thoughts of the 'moment,' instead of with his parents, teachers, or God's commands, rules, facts, and truth, in a group dynamic environment. (Karl Marx, Critique of Hegel's 'Philosophy of Right'). This is essential if the belief-action dichotomy (the parent's and/or teachers authority over the child and the bosses and/or God's authority over man, restraining "human nature") is to be replaced with theory and practice (the 'liberating' of "human nature" from parental restraint and Godly restraint, i.e., from the parent's authority and from God's authority), 'changing' the child, man, society, and the world, making the child's carnal nature the foundation for 'reality' instead. Hegel believed that "the child, contrary to appearance, is the absolute, the rationality of the relationship; he is what is enduring and everlasting, the totality which produces itself once again as such [once his feelings, thoughts, and actions and relationship with others is 'liberated' from the father's/Father's authority 'system']." (George Hegel, System of Ethical Life)
If the "feelings" of the child or man takes the place of the father's/Father's authority then all that is under the father's/Father's authority becomes the property of the children or mankind only. Hegel, sounding more like Karl Marx than Marx himself, wrote: "On account of the absolute and natural oneness of the husband, the wife, and the child, where there is no antithesis of person to person or of subject to object [no father's authority over the children (and husbands authority over the wife)], the surplus is not the property of one of them [there is no private, as in private property or business, i.e., no "My family." "Not yours."; "My property. Not yours."; "My business. Not yours"], since their indifference is not a formal or a legal one." There is a consequence to basing 'reality' upon the approval of men, i.e., basing right and wrong upon the pleasures of the 'moment.' Anyone who attains pleasure from your children, your spouse, your property, your business, etc., has as much "right" to them as you do.
By treating all beliefs as opinions and facts and truth as opinions, those of dialectic 'reasoning' make 'reasoning' subject to the flesh and the world, i.e., subject to their "feelings" of the 'moment,' i.e., subject to that "hope" which seeks only after the pleasures of the 'moment,' i.e., which comes from the flesh and the world, making man's thoughts and actions subject to his own "feelings" and the world alone, which leads to death. To make hope subject to the pleasure's of the 'moment,' i.e., subject only to the here-and-now, makes eternal life and eternal death no longer an issue (moribund), negating faith and belief, lasting facts and truth, in the process. It is why Bloom, placing hope in 'changing' the way that students think and act, from belief, facts ,and truth to opinions and theories, could write: "truth and knowledge are only relative and that there are no hard and fast truths which exist for all time and all places" (Benjamin S. Bloom, Taxonomy of Educational Objectives Book 1: Cognitive Domain), paraphrasing Karl Marx who wrote: "In the eyes of the dialectic philosophy, nothing is established for all times, nothing is absolute or sacred." (Karl Marx) In other words, all is subject to 'change,' i.e., subject to the flesh and the world (to nature) only.
"For, whatever else it may include, a change in the curriculum is a change in the people concerned—in teachers, in students, in parents and other laymen,. in administrators. The people concerned must come to understand and accept the different pattern of schooling. This means change in their knowledge pertinent to the school and its programs and purposes. Typically, people involved who were loyal to the older pattern must be helped to transfer their allegiance to the new. This means change in their values with respect to education. Moreover, the people concerned must do some things differently from the way in which they did them before the change. This means changes in their skills. And, most difficult to predict and control, are changes in the relationships among personnel which changes in the program typically require. A changed way of working for the teacher in the classroom, for example, means changed expectations on the part of the teacher with respect to the students and their behavior as well as changed expectations on the part of the students with respect to the teacher and his behavior. If the change is a sizable one, new reciprocal relations between teachers and parents, students and parents, teachers and supervisors will also have to be worked out. This means changes in the relations of people." (Kenneth D. Benne, Human Relations in Curriculum Change)
© Institution for Authority Research, Dean Gotcher 2015, 2017