"In a deductive argument, the truth of the premises is supposed to guarantee the truth of the conclusion;
in an inductive argument, the truth of the premises merely makes it probable that the conclusion is true."

Garth Kemerling 2002.

Deductive reasoning is the process of

1. taking a law or premise as is, as a priori (not depended upon prior experience or experimentation "not by human interpretation"),

2. accepting it as certain (unquestionable) and applicable in all cases (universal,) known as a categorical imperative, and

3. applying it to a specific case using valid syllogisms.

Examples of valid syllogism or sound logic are: if A=B and C=B then A=C; if A=B and CB then C≠A.

The law or premise, accepted as established truth, is used to evaluate the truth or rightness of any idea or situation. Those things which are in agreement to the premise are accepted as true but those things which are not in agreement are rejected as not true.  An "I know" can be voiced in confidence, "I know that I am right and I know that you are wrong because my conclusion lines up with the premise, and yours does not."  The premise "two plus two equals four and can not equal any other number" is universal and unquestionable. It is a categorical imperative.  Whether someone is working on  a toy, a bridge, or a plane, it works.  If someone builds a bridge with two plus two equaling five, you don't cross the bridge.  If you do you do it at your own peril.

Either it agrees or it disagrees.

Contrasting, identifying that which does not agree, is as important in deductive reasoning as is comparing, identifying that which does agree (either/or). Either it agrees or it disagrees. "This idea is in agreement with the premise, and this other idea is not."  In deductive reasoning, the moment a statement (hypothesis) conflicts with the premise, a cognitive contrast or gap is recognized, and it is rejected.  Contrast is important to determining the rightness of any statement.  Just because something seems to be right (supposition,) does not mean that it is right.  Just because something seems to be in agreement with the premise, or is similar to the premise, does not mean it is in agreement with the premise. "Seems to" is the language of private interpretation, the result of perception, it is the language of theory. In the language of perceptions―"I think"―we quickly focus on those things which are similar to our desired outcomes, in other words our feelings are involved in determining the outcome, and we tend to loose the ability to cognitively or factually recognize those things which are in conflict with the a priori.

© Institution for Authority Research, Dean Gotcher 2016