Concerning Theodor Adorno

“The use of ‘critical theory’ as a code word, which already becomes evident in Horkheimer’s early writings, enabled a certain interpretation of Marxism to enter academic discourse.” “Horkheimer, especially toward the end of the 1920s, ‘understood himself as an advocate of Marxian theory in the sense that he viewed his position as an extension of a line that went from the French Enlightenment over Hegel and Marx.’” “Work done by Horkheimer in the thirties identified 'neurosis as a social product, . . . in which the family was seen as a primary agent of repressive socialization.'”  “ A detailed theoretical analysis of the relationship between Christianity and anti‑Semitism has been contributed by Max Horkheimer and T. W. Adorno.”  (Stephen Eric Bronner Of Critical Theory and Its Theorists

“. . . should fascism become a powerful force in this country, it would parade under the banners of traditional American democracy. . . ‘rugged individualism’” "...democratic type of relationship, the ability of the subject to appraise his parents objectively, as contrasted with an inclination to put the parents on a very high plane.” “The democratic alternative, humanitarianism, (is) the ability to like and dislike, to value and oppose, individuals on the basis of concrete specific experience;” “What is particularly important here is that recognition of one's own individuality is the basis for recognition of the individuality of everyone, and for the democratic concept of the dignity of man.” “ Only when the process of production is organized on a socialist basis, they argue, can there be true economic democracy, equality or management and labor, and a high national standard of living.” Theodor Adorno The Authoritarian Personality.

 “Obedience and loyalty are the first requirements of the ingroup member. What is called power‑seeking and clannishness in the outgroup is transformed into moral righteousness, self‑defense, and loyalty in the ingroup.” “The ingroup must be kept pure and strong. The only methods of doing this are to liquidate the outgroups altogether, to keep them entirely subordinate, or to segregate them in such a way as to minimize contact with the ingroups.”  Theodor Adorno The Authoritarian Personality 

“Patriotism . . . viewing America as an ingroup in relation to other nations as outgroups. . . . ‘patriotism’ . . . involves blind attachment to certain national cultural values, uncritical conformity with the prevailing group way, and rejection of other nations as outgroups. . . .The inability to identify with humanity takes the political form of nationalism." ""It is a well‑known hypothesis that susceptibility to fascism is most characteristically a middle‑class phenomenon, . . . those who conform the most to this culture will be the most prejudiced. . . . conformity works against the values of cultural diversity,”” Theodor Adorno  The Authoritarian Personality

Gordon Allport’s book, The Nature of Prejudice, used by Benjamin Bloom to support his Taxonomies, bears witness to the socialist agenda from which contemporary education is based.  Some statements from Allport’s book follow:

“Prejudice tends to be a personality trait.”  “We note that this form of the California Ethnocentrism Scale [Theodor Adorno. The Authoritarian Personality] has four subscales, 1.  Jews, 2. Negroes, 3. Other minorities, and 4. Patriotism.”

 “’Patriotism’ as tested by these particular items obviously does not refer to loyalty to the American creed.  It has rather a flavor of ‘isolationism’”  “The California research found further, as we might now expect, a tendency for these ‘safety-islanders’ to be vigorously loyal to their churches, sororities, families, and other in-groups.” “All who live outside the ethnocentric circle of safety are viewed with suspicion.” “The same restrictiveness is seen in correlations between ethnocentrism and social and political ‘conservatism—pseudoconservative’ or selective traditionalists.’” [This is the group which will be watched and labeled rapidly as having terrorists tendencies.  Those who were honored at the founding of this nation are now to be marked as enemies of the community at its death.]

“Tolerant children, it seems, are likely to come from homes with a permissive atmosphere.”  “Early training is an important agent in slanting a child toward tolerance.”  “Tolerance [is] the result of several forces pressing in the same direction.  The greater the number of forces that press in this one direction (temperament, family atmosphere, specific parental teaching, diversified experience, school and community influences), the more tolerant the developed personality will be.” “Character-conditioned tolerance is set in a positive worldview.”

“Some tolerant people are fighters. . . they are intolerant of intolerance.”  “Sometimes they form a group (e.g., Committee on Racial Equality) to test restaurants, hotels, and public conveyances, to see whether discrimination is practiced.” “They make themselves into spies to study and eventually expose agitators and intolerant profascist organizations.” “Whether the tolerant person is militant or pacifistic, he is very likely to be liberal in his political views.”

“Prejudiced individuals are more often conservatives.”  “The fact that liberalism and radicalism both correlate positively with ethnic tolerance places a strong weapon in the hands of bigots (who are likely to be political conservatives).”  “Tolerant people are more accurate in their judgments of personality.” “Perhaps the best single phrase is that suggested by Else Frenkel-Brunswick, ‘tolerance for ambiguity [a phrase used by homosexuals to identify their behavior].’”  “There is a tolerant pattern, not merely a tolerant attitude.”  “A pattern is a synthesis or ‘total style.’”  [brackets added]

 

“Acceptance of religion mainly as an expression of submission to a clear pattern of parental authority is a condition favorable to ... pseudopatriotism; ‘we’ are the best people and the best country in the world, and we should either keep out of world affairs altogether (isolationism) or we should participate ‑‑ but without losing our full sovereignty, power, and economic advantage (imperialism). Theodor Adorno  The Authoritarian Personality

“The power‑relationship between the parents, the domination of the subject's family by the father or by the mother, and their relative dominance in specific areas of life also seemed of importance for our problem.” “It would then be more understandable why the German family, with its long history of authoritarian, threatening father figures, could become susceptible to a fascist ideology.” “On the other hand, Christianity as the religion of the ‘Son’ contains an implicit antagonism against the religion of the ‘Father’ and its surviving witnesses, the Jews.” Theodor Adorno  The Authoritarian Personality

“The task of fascist propaganda is rendered easier to the degree that antidemocratic potentials [obedience to higher authority] already exist in the great mass of people.”

    “An attitude of complete submissiveness toward ‘supernatural forces’ and a readiness to accept the essential incomprehensibility of ‘many important things’ strongly suggest the persistence in the individual of infantile attitudes toward the parents, that is to say, of authoritarian submission in a very pure form.” “Authoritarian submission was conceived of as a very general attitude that would be evoked in relation to a variety of authority figures‑‑parents, older people, leaders, supernatural power, and so forth.” “It is a well-known hypothesis that susceptibility to fascism is most characteristically a middle-class phenomenon, that it is ‘in the culture’ and, hence, that those who conform the most to this culture will be the most prejudiced.” “Superstition indicates a tendency to shift responsibility from within the individual onto outside forces beyond one’s control . . . the ego has ‘given up,’ renounced the idea that it might determine the individual’s fate by overcoming external forces.”

“An attitude of complete submissiveness toward ‘supernatural forces’ and a readiness to accept the essential incomprehensibility of ‘many important things’ strongly suggest the persistence in the individual of infantile attitudes toward the parents, that is to say, of authoritarian submission in a very pure form.” “Authoritarian submission was conceived of as a very general attitude that would be evoked in relation to a variety of authority figures‑‑parents, older people, leaders, supernatural power, and so forth.” 

“Family relationships are characterized by fearful subservience to the demands of the parents and by an early suppression of impulses not acceptable to them.” “The conception of the ideal family situation for the child: uncritical obedience to the father and elders, pressures directed unilaterally from above to below, inhibition of spontaneity and emphasis on conformity to externally imposed values.” “God is conceived more directly after a parental image and thus as a source of support and as a guiding and sometimes punishing authority.” “The power‑relationship between the parents, the domination of the subject's family by the father or by the mother, and their relative dominance in specific areas of life also seemed of importance for our problem.”  Theodor Adorno  The Authoritarian Personality

    “A tendency to transmit mainly a set of conventional rules and customs, may be considered as interfering with the development of a clear-cut personal identity in the growing child.” “... dominated by the authoritarian aspects of the parent‑child relationship or by a more democratic type of relationship, the ability of the subject to appraise his parents objectively, as contrasted with an inclination to put the parents on a very high plane.” “An important feature of the Nazi program, it will be recalled, was the defamation of everything that tended to make the individual aware of himself and his problems . . . every kind of psychology except aptitude testing came under attack." "Some tolerant people are fighters. . . they are intolerant of intolerance.... Whether the tolerant person is militant or pacifistic, he is very likely to be liberal in his political views.”  Theodor Adorno The Authoritarian Personality

“A natural step in the present study, therefore, was to conceive of a continuum extending from extreme conservatism to extreme liberalism and to construct a scale which would place individuals along this continuum.” Theodor Adorno The Authoritarian Personality

“. . . liberals tend to view social problems as symptoms of the underlying social structure, while conservatives view them as results of individual incompetence or immorality. In short, political problems tend to be seen in moral rather than sociological terms.” “What characterized the left and distinguishes it from the right is the desire for a change, slight or great, in the balance of power."  "Another aspect of traditionalism is the tendency to oppose innovations or alterations of existing politic‑economic forms." “One of the primary value systems underlying conservative ideology is concerned with practicality, ambition, and upward class mobility. These values are reflected in the raising and indoctrination of children, who ‘should learn early in life the value of a dollar.’” Theodor Adorno The Authoritarian Personality

[We] must develop persons who see non-influencability of private convictions [men with a strong conscience who must be persuaded with truth before the will change their position on a issue] in joint deliberations as a vice rather than a virtue.” Kenneth Benne Human Relations in Curriculum Change (emphasis added)

“One of the primary value systems underlying conservative ideology is concerned with practicality, ambition, and upward class mobility. These values are reflected in the raising and indoctrination of children, who ‘should learn early in life the value of a dollar.’” Theodor Adorno The Authoritarian Personality

“Events of early childhood are of prime importance for the happiness and work-potential of the adult.”  Theodor Adorno The Authoritarian Personality

“Salvation Is a By-Product of Self-Actualizing Work and Self-Actualizing Duty.” “In self-actualizing people, the work they do might be better be called ‘mission,’ ‘calling,’ ‘duty,’ ‘vocation,’ in the priest’s sense.”  (Abraham Maslow, Maslow on Management)

“The Christian religion has been deeply affected by the process of Enlightenment and the conquest of the scientific spirit.” “The immediate effect of spiritual factors on the realm of the corporal is an illusion.” Theodor Adorno The Authoritarian Personality 1950

“God is conceived more directly after a parental image and thus as a source of  support and as a guiding and sometimes punishing authority.” Theodor Adorno The Authoritarian Personality

"The conception of the ideal family situation for the child:  (1) uncritical obedience to the father and elders, (2) pressures directed unilaterally from above to below, (3) inhibition of spontaneity, and (4) emphasis on conformity to externally imposed values." Theodor Adorno, The Authoritarian Personality

"The state, by its very interference in the life of its citizens, must necessarily undermine a parental authority which it attempts to restore." Warren Bennis and Philip Slater, The Temporary Society

"For how ever much the state or community may wish to inculcate obedience and submission in the child, its intervention betrays a lack of confidence in the only objects from whom a small child can learn authoritarian submission, the parents." Ibid.

"Can the attitude that ‘women's place is in the home’ be considered a prejudice? It would appear that it is so.... Subjects who profess to some religious affiliation express more prejudice than those who do not.... people who reject organized religion are less prejudiced than those who accept it.... It is a well‑known hypothesis that susceptibility to fascism is most characteristically a middle‑class phenomenon, ... those who conform the most to this [middle-class] culture will be the most prejudiced.... Submission to authority, desire for a strong leader, subservience of the individual to the state, and so forth, have so frequently and, as it seems to us, correctly, been set forth as important aspects of the Nazi creed that a search for correlates of prejudice had naturally to take these attitudes into account.... Prejudiced subjects tend to report a relatively harsh and more threatening type of home discipline which was experienced as arbitrary by the child.... The status‑anxiety so often found in families of prejudiced subjects is reflected in the adoption of a rigid and externalized set of values:.... to explain prejudice in order to eradicate it. Eradication means re-education."

"... unconscious trends such as expressed in idea of the crucifix and the sacrifice of blood.  Although these latter ideas have been more or less successfully replaced by 'Christian Humanism,' their deeper psychological roots have still be to reckoned with." Theodor Adorno The Authoritarian Personality

"... willing to view events through the interrogator's eyes.  ... to accept half truths as being true ..."  "He is then willing to 'confess' ..."  Carl Rogers, On becoming a person

"... philosophy ... establishes the basis of reality as praxis; it serves to distinguish it from religion, the wisdom of the other world."  Joseph O'Malley, Karl Marx Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right

"The abolition of religion, as the illusory happiness of men, is a demand for their real happiness.  The call to abandon their illusions about their condition is a call to abandon a condition which requires illusions." Karl Marx, MEGA I/1/1

"Freud did not abandon the illusion that Adam really fell."  "We on the other hand cling to the position that Adam never really fell." Normon O. Brown, Life Against Death, p. 270.  (The implication being: Adam was saved by Satan from obedience to a patriarchal system and a patriarchal God.)

"Existential living is to say that the self and personality emerge from experience.  It means that one becomes a participant in and an observer of the ongoing process of organismic experience." Carl Rogers, On becoming a person

"Prior to therapy the person is prone to ask himself, 'What would my parents want me to do?'  During the process of therapy the individual comes to ask himself 'What does it mean to me?'" Ibid.

"Human consciousness can be liberated from the parental complex only by being liberated from its cultural derivatives, the paternalistic state and the patriarchal God." Norman O. Brown, Life Against Death, p. 151

"Consciousness, instead of being the watchman over a dangerous and unpredictable lot of impulses, becomes the comfortable inhabitant of a society of impulses and feelings and thoughts." Carl Rogers, On becoming a person

" ... eros belongs mainly to democracy."  Theodor Adorno, The Authoritarian Personality

"The 'dialectical' consciousness ... a manifestation of Eros ... that Dionysian ego which does not negate any more." Norman O. Brown, Life Against Death, p. 322

"Eros is fundamentally a desire for union with objects in the world." Ibid., p. 44

"In the words of Thoreau: 'We need pray for no higher heaven than the pure senses can furnish, a purely sensuous life.  Our present senses are but rudiments of what they are destined to become.'" Ibid., p. 308

"Freud saw that in the id there is no negation, only affirmation and eternity.  The instinctual reality is Dionysian drunkenness 'We can come nearer to the id with images, and call it a chaos, a cauldron of seething excitement.'" Norman O. Brown, Life Against Death, p. 175

"In psychology, Freud and his followers have presented convincing arguments that the id, man's basic and unconscious nature, is primarily made up of instincts which would, if permitted expression, result in incest, murder, and other crimes." Carl Rogers, On becoming a person

"The whole problem of therapy, as seen by this group, is how to hold these untamed forces in check in a wholesome and constructive manner, rather than in the costly fashion of the neurotic." Ibid.

"Parental discipline, religious denunciation of bodily pleasure, ... have all left man overly docile, but secretly in his unconscious unconvinced, and therefore neurotic."  Norman O. Brown, Life Against Death

"Some of the formal properties of religion, such as the rigid antithesis of good and evil, ... still exercise considerable power." Theodor Adorno, The Authoritarian Personality

“Acceptance of religion mainly as an expression of submission to a clear pattern of parental authority is a condition favorable to ethnocentrism.” “... ethnocentrism takes the form of pseudopatriotism; ‘we’ are the best people and the best country in the world, and we should either keep out of world affairs altogether (isolationism) or we should participate ‑‑ but without losing our full sovereignty, power, and economic advantage (imperialism). And in either case we should have the biggest army and navy in the world, and atom bomb monopoly.” “Confronted with the rigidity of the adult ethnocentrist, one turns naturally to the question of whether the prospects for healthy personality structure would not be greater if the proper influences were brought to bear earlier in the individuals life, . . .”“For ethnocentric parents, acting by themselves, the prescribed measures would probably be impossible.” Theodor Adorno The Authoritarian Personality 1950 

“b. RESISTANCE TO SOCIAL CHANGE. Another aspect of traditionalism is the tendency to oppose innovations or alterations of existing politic‑economic forms. ‘The best ways to solve social problems is to stick close to the middle of the road, to move slowly and to avoid extremes.’” Theodor Adorno The Authoritarian Personality

“When we learn to silence the inner voice that judges yourself and others, there is no limit to what we can accomplish, individually and as part of a team. Absence of judgment makes you more receptive to innovative ideas.” Michael Ray in Maslow on Management, written by Abraham Maslow.  

A "change agent... should know about the process of change, how it takes place and the attitudes, values and behaviors that usually act as barriers.... He should know who in his system are the 'defenders' or resisters of innovations." Ronald Havelock, A Change Agent's Guide to Innovation in Education.  

In the chapter titled Some Disappointments in Innovation A Pattern of Failure written by Carl Rogers we read  "What we need to learn, it seems, are ways of gaining acceptance for a humanistic person-centered venture in a culture more devoted to rule by authority."   Carl Rogers  Freedom To Learn FOR THE 80’S 

“During the period of innovation, an environment is invisible. The present is always invisible because the whole field of attention is so saturated with it It becomes visible only when is has been superseded by a new environment."  Federal Education Grant, Dec. 1969  Behavior Science in Teacher Education Program p. 237

 The individual may have ‘secret’ thoughts which he will under no circumstances reveal to anyone else if he can help it. To gain access is particularly important, for here may lie the individual’s potential.” Theodor Adorno The Authoritarian Personality  

“Confronted with the rigidity of the adult ... one turns naturally to the question of whether the prospects for healthy personality structure would not be greater if the proper influences were brought to bear earlier in the individual's life, and since the earlier the influence the more profound it will be, attention becomes focused upon child training.” Theodor Adorno The Authoritarian Personality  

“. . . Can the student accept the fact that the traditional family might be changed and might possibly disappear?” Paul Dressell et al. General Education: Explorations in Evaluation, American Council on Education, 1954, p. 185

"The recent transformations in parental roles in the Western nuclear family have made children more independent. Their socialization thus comes more and more from school, youth groups, and from the workplace, once they enter it. This freedom is a two-edged sword. Being open to many influences can make children more well rounded, but the lack of clear guideposts can lead to a kind of relativism that stunts their moral development. Indeed, many young people rightly sense a great void in our consumer society and try to fill it through escapist entertainment or massive consumption of psychotropic drugs." www.thebrain.mcgill.ca  THE BRAIN FROM TOP TO BOTTOM ANATOMY AND FUNCTION ANATOMY BY LEVEL OF ORGANIZATION SOCIAL, INTERMEDIATE

“What The Authoritarian Personality was really studying was the character type of a totalitarian rather than an authoritarian society ─ fostered by a familial crisis in which traditional parental authority was under fire.” Theodor Adorno The Authoritarian Personality

“The power‑relationship between the parents, the domination of the subject's family by the father or by the mother, and their relative dominance in specific areas of life also seemed of importance for our problem." "Acceptance of religion mainly as an expression of submission to a clear pattern of parental authority is a condition favorable to ethnocentrism. [nationalism] (Theodor Adorno  The Authoritarian Personality)

“Religion is the sigh of the oppressed creature, the sentiment of a heartless world, and the soul of soulless conditions. It is the opium of the people.” (Karl Marx Selected writings in Sociology and Social Philosophy, translated by T. B. Bottomore)  “Acceptance of religion mainly as an expression of submission to a clear pattern of parental authority is a condition favorable to ethnocentrism. [nationalism]

“The conception of the ideal family situation for the child: uncritical obedience to the father and elders, pressures directed unilaterally from above to below, inhibition of spontaneity and emphasis on conformity to externally imposed values.” Theodor Adorno The Authoritarian Personality 

“It is in this ‘box’ that the most influential controls are to be found.”
“The affective domain contains the forces that determine the nature of an individual’s life and ultimately the life of an entire people” p. 91
“In the more traditional society a philosophy of life, a mode of conduct, is spelled out for its members at an early stage in their lives.” p. 166
“A major function of education in such a society is to achieve the internalization of this philosophy.”
“This is not to suggest that education in an open society does not attempt to develop personal and social values.” “It does indeed.” p. 166
“But more than in traditional societies it allows the individual a greater amount of freedom in which to achieve a Weltanschauung1” p. 166
1Often this is too challenging a goal for the individual to achieve on his own, and the net effect is either maladjustment or the embracing of a philosophy of life developed by others.” p. 166
1Cf. Erich Fromm, 1941; T. W. Adorno et al., 1950” p. 166

“The scientific study of ideology can only be made on the basis of theory.” Theodor Adorno The Authoritarian Personality  

Karl Korsch explained it this way“...to grasp philosophies and other ideological systems in theory as realities and to treat them as such in praxis.” Bronner Of Critical Theory and its Theorists 

“It is a function of the ego to make peace with conscience, to create a larger synthesis within which conscience, emotional impulses, and self operate in relative harmony.” “When this synthesis is not achieved, the superego has somewhat the role of a foreign body within the personality, and it exhibits those rigid, automatic, and unstable aspects discussed above.” Theodor Adorno The Authoritarian Personality

“...  the super-ego ‘unites in itself the influences of the present and of the past.’” Norman O. Brown Life Against Death

“The superego is conceived in psychoanalysis as functioning substantially in the same way as the conscience.” “Superego development is conceived as the incorporation of the moral standards of society.” “Therefore the levels of the Taxonomy should describe successive levels of goal setting appropriate to superego development.” Benjamin S. Bloom Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: Book I Cognitive Domain

“This voice which really isn’t you but tells you the way the world works is a direct attack on creativity. We have to work to remove it.” “When we learn to silence the inner voice that judges yourself and others, there is no limit to what we can accomplish, individually and as part of a team. Absence of judgment makes you more receptive to innovative ideas.” Michael Ray Maslow on Management, Abraham Maslow, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 1998. p. 223, 225

 “Using social environmental forces to change the parent’s behavior toward the child.” T. W. Adorno, The Authoritarian Personality, 1950, p. 6

". . . environmental forces mold the personality . . . "The forces of personality are primarily [felt] needs . . . which interact with other [felt] needs in harmonious or conflicting patterns."  Theodor Adorno The Authoritarian Personality

“Any non-family-based collectivity that intervenes between parent and child and attempts to regulate and modify the parent-child relationship will have a democratizing impact on that relationship regardless of its intent.” Warren Bennis The Temporary Society, 1969

“We must bring theory closer to practice.” Statement made by Rod Paige on national news. He was our  secretary of education under president Bush Jr.

". . . personality is a product of the social environment of the past . . . very resistant to fundamental change."  "According to the present theory, the effects of environmental forces in molding the personality are, in general, the more profound the earlier in the life history of the individual they are brought." Theodor Adorno The Authoritarian Personality

“The conception of the ideal family situation for the child: uncritical obedience to the father and elders, pressures directed unilaterally from above to below, inhibition of spontaneity and emphasis on conformity to externally imposed values.” “The prototypic 'liberal' is . . . an individual who actively seeks progressive social change, who can be militantly critical (though not necessarily totally rejective) of the present status quo,” “One of the primary functions of these [matter‑of‑fact] questions was to encourage the subject to talk freely. This was attempted by indicating, for example, that critical remarks about parents were perfectly in place, thus reducing defenses as well as feelings of guilt and anxiety.” Theodor Adorno The Authoritarian Personality

“The conception of the ideal family situation for the child: uncritical obedience to the father and elders, pressures directed unilaterally from above to below, inhibition of spontaneity and emphasis on conformity to externally imposed values.” T. W. Adorno, The Authoritarian Personality

“The power‑relationship between the parents, the domination of the subject's family by the father or by the mother, and their relative dominance in specific areas of life also seemed of importance for our problem.” T. W. Adorno, The Authoritarian Personality

“What is particularly important here is that recognition of one's own individuality is the basis for recognition of the individuality of everyone, and for the democratic concept of the dignity of man.” Theodor Adorno The Authoritarian Personality

''And he said unto them, Ye are they which justify yourselves before men; but God knoweth your hearts: for that which is highly esteemed among men is abomination in the sight of God." Luke 16: 15

"The self-esteem—public esteem system is thus closely related to the concept of group cohesiveness. We have said that the degree of group’s influence on self-esteem is a function of its cohesiveness."  Irvin D. Yalom Theory and Practice of Group Psychotherapy

“Only by bringing out the child’s own ideas in dialogical and dialectical settings can the child begin to reconstruct and progressively transcend concepts.” Richard Paul Critical Thinking Handbook

“In the first phase various members of the group quickly attempt to establish their customary places in the leadership hierarchy.” “Next comes a period of frustration and conflict brought about by the leader’s steadfast rejection of the concept of peck order and the authoritarian atmosphere in which the concept of peck order is rooted."  “The third phase sees the development of cohesiveness among the members of the group, accompanied by a certain amount of complacency and smugness.” [an unstable stage] “In the fourth phase the members retain the group-centeredness and sensitivities which characterized the third phase, but they develop also a sense of purpose and urgency which makes the group potentially and effective social instrument.”  Kenneth Benne Human Relations in Curriculum Change

“All concepts that are irreducible to facts are meaningless.” Bronner Of Critical Theory and it Theorists

"Techniques for overcoming resistance, developed mainly in the field of individual psychotherapy, can be improved and adapted for use with groups and even for use on a mass scale."  Theodor Adorno The Authoritarian Personality

"A group becomes a group fully only as it forms a common purpose and decides on a course of action appropriate to that purpose.  The purpose of discussion involves, therefore, the remolding of habits, attitudes, understandings and ways of working . . . in relation to the process of problem definition and solution as a whole."  "'What is our purpose at this point?'  is recognized as one of the most helpful questions that can be asked . . ."  "Purpose:  . . . the building of group-centered attitudes and . . .  the perpetuation of such group-centered behavior." Kenneth Bennie Human Relations in Curriculum Change

"One of the most fascinating aspects of group therapy is that eveyone is born again, born again in the group."  Irvin Yalom The Theory and Practice of Group Psychotherapy

"The individual accepts the new system of values and beliefs by accepting belongingness to the group."  Kenneth Bennie Human Relations in Curriculum Change

"The real nature of man is the totality of social relations." Karl Marx Thesis on Feuerbach #6

"For I delight in the law of God after the inward man: but I see another law in my members, warring against the law of my mind, and bringing me into captivity to the law of sin which is in my members.  O wretched man that I am!  who shall deliver me from the body of this death?  I thank God through Jesus Christ our Lord.  So with the mind I myself serve the law of God; but with the flesh the law of sin." Romans 7:22-25

"The law of the Lord is perfect, converting the soul:"  Psalms 19:7

"Do not think that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets. I am not come to destroy, but to fulfill."  Matthew 5:17

"Tillich suggests that it would be better to let the giver of arbitrary laws to destroy us physically than to accept the psychological destruction that would accompany submission to an alien will."  Leonard F. Wheat Paul Tillich's Dialectical Humanism

"Because the carnal mind is enmity against God: for it is not subject to the law of God, neither indeed can be."  Romans 8:7

"In order to effect rapid change, . . . [one] must mount a vigorous attack on the family lest the traditions of present generations be preserved.  It is necessary, in other words, artificially to create an experiential chasm between parents and children―One must teach them not to respect their tradition-bound elders, who are tied to the past and know only what is irrelevant." Warren Bennis The Temporary Society

". . . any intervention between parent and child tend to produce familial democracy regardless of its intent." "The consequence of family democratization take a long time to make themselves felt―but it would be difficult to reverse the process one begun." Ibid.

"To study something means to study it in the process of change; that is the dialectical method's basic demand."  L. S. Vygotsky Mind in Society

"It is usually easier to change individuals formed into a group than to change any one of them separetly."  Kurt Lewin in Kenneth Bennie Human Relations in Curriculum Change

"Unfreezing. This term, also adopted from Lewinian change theory, refers to the process of disconfirming an individual's former belief system."  Irvin Yalom The Theory and Practice of Group Psychotherapy

"He reenacts early family scripts in the group and, if therapy is successful, is able to experiment with new behavior, to break free from the locked family role he once occupied. . . . the patient changes the past by reconstituting it." " . . . a patient might, with further change, outgrow . . . his spouse . . . unless concomitant changes occur in the spouse."  Irvin Yalom The Theory and Practice of Group Psychotherapy

"Human consciousness can be liberated from the parental complex only by being liberated from its cultural derivatives, the paternalistic state and the patriarchal God."  Norman O. Brown Life Against Death

". . . the only authority necessary is the authority to establish certain qualities of interpersonal relationship."  ". . . in the direction of the 'open society,'. . . " "Individuals move not from a fixity through change to a new fixity, though such a process is indeed possible. But [through a] continuum from fixity to changingness, from rigid structure to flow, from status to process."  "In this process the individual becomes more open to his experience.  It is the opposite of defensiveness or rigidity.  His beliefs are not rigid, he can tolerate ambiguity." Carl Rogers On becoming a person

"What truly is always true is that all is in flux, the truth-seeker ought properly to address himself to the study of this life process of truth seeking itself."  G. W. F. Hegel

"The philosopher Hegel said that truth is not found in the thesis nor the antithesis but in an emerging synthesis which reconciles the two." Martin Luther King Jr.  Strength to Love

"Synthesis Condition: Freedom to determine his own purposes."  "His efforts need not conform to the views of authority."  Bloom's Taxonomies: Cognitive, Affective

". . . the whole emphasis is upon process, not upon end states of being . . . to value certain qualitative elements of the process of becoming, that we can find a pathway toward the open society."  "Prior to therapy the person is prone to ask himself 'What would my parents want me to do?'  During the process of therapy the individual comes to ask himself 'What does it mean to me?'" Carl Rogers On becoming a person

"In the process of history man gives birth to himself.  He becomes what he potentially is, and he attains what the serpent―the symbol of wisdom and rebellion―promised, and what the patriarchal, jealous God of Adam did not wish: that man would become like God himself."  Erich Fromm  You shall be as gods

"Every form of objectification results in alienation"  Bronnor Critical Theorists and their Theory

"The life which he has given to the object sets itself against him as an alien and hostile force."  Karl Marx MEGA I/3, pp. 83-84

"Alienation will continue so long as the subject engages in an externalization (Entausserung) of his or her subjectivity."  Bronner Critical Theorists and their Theory

"Hegel and Marx have laid the foundations for the understanding of the problem of alienation."  Erich Fromm Escape from Freedom

"Alienation has a long history.  Its most radical sense already appears in the biblical expulsion from Eden."  God is thus the anthropological source of alienation . . ."  Bronner Critical Theorists and their Theory

"The immediate task is to unmask human alienation in its secular form, now that it has been unmasked in the sacred form."  Karl Marx MEGA I/1/1

"The only practically possible emancipation is the unique theory which holds that man is the supreme being for man."  Karl Marx Critique of Hegel's 'Philosophy of Right'

"[Children] have not acquired that sense of shame which, according to the Biblical story, expelled mankind from Paradise, and which, presumably, would be discarded if Paradise were regained."  "The new guilt complex appears to be historically connected with the rise of patriarchal religion (from the Western development the Hebrews are decisive)." "The guilty conscience is formed in childhood by the incorporation of the parents and the wish to be the father of oneself." "We must return to Freud and say that incest guilt created the familial organization." Normal O. Brown Life Against Death

"Freud noted that ... patricide and incest ... are part of man's deepest nature."  Irvin Yalom The Theory and Practice of Group Psychotherapy

"Extreme prejudice of a violent and openly antidemocratic sort does not seem to be widespread in this country, especially in the middle class."  Theodor Adorno The Authoritarian Personality

" . . . a 'cure' of one manifestation is likely to be followed by a breaking out in some other way. . . . so great is the over-all fascist potential that any front might make it even more difficult . . ." Ibid

". . . as the present study has shown, we are dealing with a structure within the person it seems that we should consider, first, psychological techniques for changing personality." Ibid

"The problem is one which requires the efforts of all social scientists . . . the councils or round tables . . . psychologists should have a voice."  Ibid

" . . . the impact of Sigmund Freud's work on modern culture . . . the connection between the suppression of children (both within the home and outside) . . . the psychological dynamics of the life of the child and the adult alike."  Theodor Adorno The Authoritarian Personality

"THE FAMILY, THE NEXT MOST IMPORTANT UNIT affecting social control, is obviously instrumental in the initial formation of the conscience and in the continued reinforcement of the values that encourage law abiding behavior."  Dr. Robert Trojanowicz The meaing of "Community" in Community Policing.

"The power-relationship between the parents, the domination of the subject's family by the father or by the mother, and their relative dominance in specific areas of life also seemed of importance for our problem."  Theodor Adorno The Authoritarian Personality

"It would then be more understandable why the German family, with its long history of authoritarian, threatening father figures, could become susceptible to a fascist ideology."  Ibid.

"The major implication . . . was the transformation of the family's role in the process of socialization."  Martin Jay The Dialectical Imagination

"Equality of Opportunity becomes ever greater with the weakening of family power. " James Coleman The Adolescent Society

"Few parents can be expected to persist for long in educating their children for a society that does not exist, or even in orienting themselves toward goals which they share only with a minority." Theodor Adorno, The Authoritarian Personality

"Without exception, patients enter group therapy with the history of a highly unsatisfactory experience in their first and most important group--their primary family."  Irwin Yalom The Theory and Practice of Group Psychotherapy, p. 14

". . . 'to expose the patient, under more favorable circumstances, to emotional situations which he could not handle in the past.  ... undergo a corrective emotional experience suitable to repair the traumatic influence of pervious experience.' Franz Alexander, 1946 in Ibid., p. 25.

"Through the therapist's continued willingness to verbalize and to confront the calamity calmly, patients gradually realize the irrationality of the feared calamity."  Ibid., p. 183

"The therapist assists the patient to clarify the nature of the imagined danger and then ... to detoxity, to disconfirm the reality of this danger."  Ibid., p. 158

He reenacts early family scripts in the group and, if therapy is successful, is able to experiment with new behavior, to break free from the locked family role he once occupied.  ... the patient changes the past by reconstituting it."  Ibid., p. 98

"The theme underlying much of the research is that once you can identify a community, you have discovered the primary unity of society ABOVE the level of the individual and the family that can be moblized to take concerted action to bring about POSITIVE SOCIAL CHANGE."  Dr. Robert Trojanowicz, et al.

" In Eclipse of Reason Horkheimer ... 'this mentality of man as the master can be traced back to the first chapters of Genesis.'" Martin Jay, Dialectical Imagination.

"Adult sexuality, restricted by rules, to maintain family and society, ... leads to neurosis."  Norman O. Brown, Life Against Death,    p. 24.

"Mass media, and an ever-increasing range of personal experiences, gives an adolescent social sophistication at an early age, making him unfit for the obedient role of the child in the family." James Coleman, The Adolescent Society

"Every time we teach a child something, we keep him from inventing it himself."  Jean Piaget

"In fact, a large part of what we call 'good teaching' is the teacher's ability to attain affective objectives through challenging the student's fixted beliefs and getting them to discuss issues."  Krathwohl, Bloom, & Masid, Taxonomy of Education Objectives, Book 2 Affective Domain, p. 54

"The familiar must be made strange; many common props, social conventions, status symbols, and ordinary procedural rules are eliminated from the T-group, and the individual's values and beliefs about himself are challenged."  Irvin Yalom, The Theory and Practice of Group Psychotherapy

"All social life is essentially practical.  All the mysteries which lead theory toward mysticism find their rational solution in human practice and in the comprehension of this practice."  Karl Marx, Thesis on Feuerbach #8

"A particular social sphere must stand for the notorious crime of the whole society, so that liberation from this sphere appears to be universal liberation." Karl Marx, Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right

"A new scientific truth does not triumph by convincing its opponents and making them see the light, but rather because its opponents eventually die, and a new generation grows up that is familiar with it."   Thomas Kuhn, quoting Max Planck's famous dictum.  The Structure of Scientific Revolutions.

"Kuhn admitted problems with the schemata of his socio-psychological theory yet continued to urge its application into the scientific fields of astronomy, physics, chemistry and biology." Ibid.

"Kuhn states 'If a paradigm is ever to triumph it must gain some first supporters, men who will develop it to the point where hardheaded arguments can be produced and multiplied . . . (which eventuates in) an increasing shift in the distribution of professional allegiances (where upon) the man who continues to resist after his whole profession has been converted is ipso facto ceased to be a scientist." Ibid., pp. 158-159